The discovery and fascinating particle physics of the Higgs field. And the effect it has on modern-day physics, especially astrophysics and theoretical physics. Research is done from the LHC (hadron collider).

# INTRODUCTION

There has been a hunt for an explanation for the quantum field theory since Newton proposed that light traveled in the form of particles based on experiments shows that light travels in the form of waves. However, in the 1900s, Einstein proposed “the photoelectric effect” in which light travels in wave-particle duality, which means that light can act as a particle or as a wave, therefore carrying mass. Currently, we have reached from the understanding of the Higgs field to hawking radiation (which is antimatter and matter decreasing the size of the black hole, as particles are emitted) which almost looks like the photoelectric effect. The Higgs field or Higgs boson and its discovery is the backbone of subatomic particles since it’s the one that gives mass to the gauge particles.

A brief introduction to particle physics; in every atom, there is a nucleus consisting of protons, neutrons, and electrons with negative charge orbiting the nucleus in a cloud-like system through the nuclear strong and weak force. And the electrons in particular, when you try to mathematically or realistically try to know the exact position and speed at the same time which is impossible because of the uncertainty principle. The second thing is that within every one of those particles have quarks and the quarks are either an up force or a downward force which are connected through gluons and then there are bosons: subatomic particles that shouldn’t have mass because of photon concept, yet the discovery of the Higgs boson led to the conclusion that these particles to carry mass otherwise they don’t exist.

# HYPOTHESIS

The Higgs field can be head-scratching, but clarifying what things are made of and asking why a force like, for example, a photon does not interact with Einstein’s field equation makes the quantum level more prone to be part of spring theory than casual Newtonian mechanics. These questions are answered after decades of research of experimentation and technological breakthroughs and mathematical theories, Thus we are introduced to the Higgs field; named after Peter Higgs. The Higgs field is when a Higgs boson-particle has a spin of 0 and when interacting with other subatomic particles like the gauge bosons or fermions, etc. The Higgs boson is the only particle in the standard model that has zero spins. All of the stated particles are part of the standard model. Peter Higgs proposed that the Higgs mechanism layouts show interactions with particles relating to their mass in specific scalar fieldwork. Using Lagrangian mathematics to express this as a whole, it was discovered that the vibration of the Higgs sheds a light on the possibility that it is a boson like the w and z boson which carry weak nuclear force. This is what the Higgs mechanism states: if subatomic particle interfaces regarding its energy levels and the amount of force is produced just to pass through Higgs field is longer and therefore more interaction with the Higgs field then that object becomes heavier, and if for example a photon which does not interact with the Higgs field then it carries zero mass. Theoretically speaking a photon, therefore, can pass through the universe at the speed of light without any interference with the Higgs.

The Higgs boson discovered in 2012 by CERN, brought the conclusion that the mass of the boson is 125.35GeV. This is the same calculation Peter Higgs used to describe it mathematically through his way of the Higgs mechanism. What’s outstanding is that the boson, even though being an interactive mass particle, is heavier than almost all of the subatomic particles in the standard model except for the top or up quark 3 transformations which is a heavier up quark. Plus it disproves an infinite universe and inflation is more likely to be a realistic theory. Since the universe started with the big bang and that entropy hasn’t changed in the universe, it has always transferred to other cosmic clusters or objects.

Photon energy is an energy calculation used for a particle conversion to a field, and by field meaning wave and deriving the wave function into an energy function. Researchers from the article on the high field in linear and quadratic areas showed us that einstein’s field equations that originated for scalar curvature became another study in a field that later inspired Peter Higgs on the Higgs boson field. Both of these field equations use a similar concept, though the Higgs is in a quantized scale and relativity (Einstein’s field equations) is cosmic. The data shows that it recognizes the Higgs boson and shows how the force and curvature and how stress creates mass from energy. Therefore string theory approves asymmetry in the Higgs boson being one of the lightest particles yet most effectively explains that in deep context.

The way that a Higgs mechanism works fundamentally is a given vacuum of space and specific energy levels with the interference of particles. The more resistance, the less asymmetric (asymmetry is breaking symmetry) energy creates mass from that field we call the Higgs field. Animating it in your mind or on a graph explains how a curve/string of energy affects how much an object should weigh. All of this is to complete the standard model and to clarify what is after these subatomic particles. String theory is the closest theory to go beyond the standard model. Quantized string theory shows that the Higgs field is involved in the transformation of gauge bosons into Goldstone bosons which are much bigger and longitudinal gauge bosons. All of this is altered from the breaking of symmetry, and the overall radius of the object is not only transformed but broken down. Quantum physics always had this scary nature ever since quantum entanglement was introduced. But it can be tamed with the right technology.

# PROCEDURES FOR LHC

First thing first, there are two types of particle accelerators: an Electrodynamic Accelerator and an Electrostatic Particle Accelerator. The main difference is that the Electrostatic LHC uses the static electric field to accelerate subatomic particles. An example of this is a cathode ray tube, which is used to display images such as the function of a wave using an electron gun or beam. There are two types of accelerators in simple form: a linear particle accelerator and a cyclotron. A cyclotron uses magnetic fields in a circular path, while the linear particle accelerator uses a beam in a straight line to collide protons, photons, etc.

- Energizing photons
- Speeding subatomic particles near the speed of light
- Colliding the subatomic particles and collecting data from what is emitted.
- Collecting data through electron beams-later visualizing data in a graph

# Graphical models

# CONCLUSION

In the end, the Higgs field allows us to understand string theory since a proton consists of quarks and gluons; the gluon is a force particle of the nuclear force, and therefore is the center of mass along with the different fields of energy levels the quarks(up or down) produce. This is how we should imagine subatomic particles: multiple fields each having to do for a property in particle physics and the overall structure of that wave duality creates mass from e=mc2 in the quantized form. Since the Higgs mechanism has a specific tensor or curvature interaction with energy and its contribution to giving mass to particles, it means that a unified theory between relativity and quantum physics is closer than we think. That door opens us up to conclusions and explanations for dark matter and dark energy since relativity is an answer to cosmic physics problems. It can be done since Stephen hawking combined relativity with quantum physics to emphasize that black holes also vaporize and later studies have shown that it releases the quantum information that it sucked in when antimatter is mixed with matter. In that case, scientists always had the guts to push beyond the imaginable and scientific truth.

References:

1- The Higgs Boson.” *CERN*, home.cern/science/physics/higgs-boson.

2- “Higgs Field.” *Encyclopædia Britannica*, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., http://www.britannica.com/science/Higgs-field.

3- Admin. “What Is The Importance Of Spin In Quantum Field Theory? – QnA.” *BYJUS*, BYJU’S, 22 Oct. 2019, byjus.com/questions/what-is-the-importance-of-spin-in-quantum-field-theory/.

4- Granda, L. N., and D. F. Jimenez. “Higgs Inflation with Linear and Quadratic Curvature Corrections.” *ArXiv:1910.11289 [Gr-Qc, Physics:Hep-Th]*, Oct. 2019. *arXiv.org*, http://arxiv.org/abs/1910.11289.

Writer: Ali Fathi Al-Bati

Editors: Uzay/Rana Alqahtani